Digital Camera Shutter Speed
Aperture and Shutter Speed
The shutter on a digital camera is a mechanical device which opens for a set period of time and consequently
allows a set level of light to enter the camera through the lens. The longer the shutter is open the more light
that enters the camera.
Although most Single Lens Reflex (SLR) digital cameras have a mechanical shutter, some less expensive models
have an electronic shutter rather than mechanical. This type of camera shutter works by clearing the image sensor
and then allowing the sensor to gather light for the required time.
Many digital camera models possess an automatic setting to determine the appropriate shutter speed. These
cameras may also have an option to set shutter speed manually for greater artistic control.
Shutter speed is always calculated in relation to aperture (aperture shutter speed) which is the size of the
opening of the lens. These two settings are used together to set the amount of light that hits the image sensor.
Shutter speed and aperture can be very confusing if you are new to photgraphy but once you can get a grasp of the
relationship between the two, you can produce all manner of effects in your photographs
Faster shutter speeds can be used to freeze subject matter that is moving whilst longer shutter speeds can be
used in low light conditions to allow moving objects to blur. The latter effect is often used when photographing
Left Photograph taken using short Camera Shutter Speed
Right Photograph taken using long Camera Shutter Speed
Since a fast shutter speed lets in less light than a long shutter speed, it is usually combined with a larger
aperture setting to allow sufficient light to reach the image sensor. Similarly, long shutter speeds are combined
with small apertures.
Shutter speeds are measured in fractions of a second in an approximate 2:1 scale starting with 1 second. The
scale runs 1 second, 1/2 second, 1/4 second etc. down to the fastest speed of 1/8000 second. In addition, many
cameras have a 'B' shutter setting (the shutter stays open as long as the button is pushed) and a 'T' setting (the
shutter stays open until the button is pushed again).
Aperture settings are also measured on the same 2:1 scale. This allows for the same light exposure by increasing
shutter speed one notch while opening the aperture one notch. Light conditions for a given scene allow for a range
of shutter speed/aperture combinations. There is no 'correct' combination ? it depends on what kind of effect the
photographer hopes to capture.
For example, if you wish to photograph a moving subject such as an athlete during a sports competition, you
would normally use a fast shutter speed to freeze the action. This fast speed must be used with the correct
aperture to expose the image correctly.
A slower shutter speed, however, could be used if you pan the camera to match the movement of the athlete. This
can create a more dynamic effect as parts of the picture (especially the background) will be blurred. Slower
shutter speeds must be compensated for with smaller aperture settings.
Another common photographic effect is controlling the depth of field to highlight the subject. Large apertures
have a smaller depth of field which means that the foreground and background will be (pleasingly) out of focus. To
achieve this effect you must combine the large aperture setting with a fast shutter speed.
Flash adds another dimension to the aperture/shutter speed equation. Interesting effects can be achieved by
using flash to freeze the main motion while allowing some of the action to be blurred with a slower shutter